الأحد، 14 أغسطس، 2011

about Cleopatra - Queen of Egypt

Much of what we know about Cleopatra was written after her death when it was politically expedient to portray her as a threat to Rome and its stability. Thus, some of what we know about Cleopatra may have been exaggerated or misrepresented by those sources. Cassius Dio, one of the ancient sources that tell her story, summarizes her story as "She captivated the two greatest Romans of her day, and because of the third she destroyed herself."

Early Years

During Cleopatra's early years, her father tried to maintain his failing power in Egypt by bribing powerful Romans. Ptolemy XII was reportedly the son of a concubine instead of a royal wife.
When Ptolemy XII went to Rome in 58 BCE, his wife, Cleopatra VI Tryphaina, and his eldest daughter, Berenice IV, assumed the rulership jointly. When he returned, apparently Cleopatra VI had died, and with the help of Roman forces, Ptolemy XII regained his throne and executed Berenice. Ptolemy then married his son, about 9 years old, to his remaining daughter, Cleopatra, who was by time about eighteen.

Early Rule

Cleopatra apparently attempted to rule alone, or at least not equally with her much-younger brother. In 48 BCE, Cleopatra was pushed out of power by ministers. At the same time, Pompey -- with whom Ptolemy XII had allied himself -- appeared in Egypt, chased by forces of Julius Caesar. Pompey was assassinated by Ptolemy XIII's supporters. A sister of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII declared herself ruler as Arsinoe IV.

Cleopatra and Julius Caesar

Cleopatra, according to the stories, had herself delivered to Julius Caesar's presence in a rug and won his support. Ptolemy XIII died in a battle with Caesar, and Caesar restored Cleopatra to power in Egypt, along with her brother Ptolemy XIV as co-ruler.
In 46 BCE, Cleopatra named her newborn son Ptolemy Caesarion, emphasizing that this was the son of Julius Caesar. Caesar never formally accepted paternity, but he did take Cleopatra to Rome that year, also taking her sister, Arsinoe, and displaying her in Rome as a war captive. That he was already married (to Calpurnia) yet Cleopatra claimed to be his wife added to a climate in Rome that ended with Caesar's assassination in 44 BCE.
After Caesar's death, Cleopatra returned to Egypt, where her brother and co-ruler Ptolemy XIV died, probably assassinated by Cleopatra. She established her son as her co-ruler Ptolemy XV Caesarion.

Cleopatra and Marc Antony

When the next Roman military governor of the region, Marc Antony, demanded her presence -- along with that of other rulers who were controlled by Rome -- she arrived dramatically in 41 BCE, and managed to convince him of her innocence of charges about her support of Caesar's supporters in Rome, captivated his interest, and gained his support.
Antony spent a winter in Alexandria with Cleopatra (41-40 BCE), and then left. Cleopatra bore twins to Antony. He, meanwhile, went to Athens and, his wife Fulvia having died in 40 BCE, agreed to marry Octavia, the sister of his rival Octavius. They had a daughter in 39 BCE. In 37 BCE Antony returned to Antioch, Cleopatra joined him, and they went through a sort of marriage ceremony in 36 BCE. That same year, another son was born to them, Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Marc Antony formally restored to Egypt -- and Cleopatra -- territory which the Ptolemy's had lost control of, including Cyprus and part of what is now Lebanon. Cleopatra returned to Alexandria and Antony joined her in 34 BCE after military victory. He affirmed the joint rulership of Cleopatra and her son, Caesarion, recognizing Caesarion as the son of Julius Caesar.
Antony's relationship with Cleopatra -- his supposed marriage and their children, and his granting of territory to her -- was used by Octavian to raise Roman concerns over his loyalties. Antony was able to use Cleopatra's financial support to oppose Octavian in the Battle of Actium (31 BCE), but missteps -- probably attributable to Cleopatra -- led to defeat.
Cleopatra tried to get Octavian's support for her children's succession to power, but was unable to come to an agreement with him. In 30 BCE, Marc Antony killed himself, reportedly because he'd been told that Cleopatra had been killed, and when yet another attempt to keep power failed, Cleopatra killed herself.

Egypt and Cleopatra's Children After Cleopatra's Death

Egypt became a province of Rome, ending the rule of the Ptolemies. Cleopatra's children were taken to Rome. Caligula later executed Ptolemy Caesarion, and Cleopatra's other sons simply disappear from history and are assumed to have died. Cleopatra's daughter, Cleopatra Selene, married Juba, king of Numidia and Mauretania. 


There were seven queens known as Cleopatra. The most well known one was the last one.
If you lived with Cleopatra, legends say she was very attractive and her personality was amazing.  Cleopatra had two older sisters and one younger sister.  She also had two younger brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.  In the spring in 51 B.C., Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom to his 18-year-old daughter, Cleopatra, and her brother, Ptolemy XIII.
Cleopatra’s marriage was a little bit confusing and a little unusual.  Cleopatra was forced to have a consort.  A consort is when a girl has to marry a brother or a son, no matter what age they are.  Cleopatra married her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when she was 11 years old.  During Cleopatra’s marriage, Ptolemy drowned trying to escape from either a war or some people who were trying to kill him.  When Ptolemy XIII died, it was the happiest time in Cleopatra’s life because she could control the entire country by herself.
After Ptolemy XIII’s death, Cleopatra married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV.  Cleopatra’s marriage with Ptolemy XIV didn’t last long because he possibly died of disease.
Cleopatra’s marriage with Mark Anthony was pretty good because she could get almost anything she wanted from him, and legends say he was very romantic.  Later in Cleopatra’s life with Mark Anthony, Mark Anthony was told that Cleopatra was dead.  Later a message said she was still alive.  Before Mark Anthony heard the second message, he fell on top of his sword on purpose because he thought without Cleopatra there was no reason to live.  He died instantly.  According to Cleopatra and Mark Anthony’s wishes, they were buried together.
Not very much is known about Cleopatra’s marriage to Julius Caesar.  One thing is in March of 44 B.C., Julius Caesar was outside of the Senate building in Rome when senators killed him.  They thought he was a disgrace to Egypt.
When Cleopatra was the queen of Egypt she started calling herself the new Isis is the devoted mother and wife goddess.  This was very disrespectful to Egypt’s goddess and was the subject of a lot of talk among Cleopatra’s fans.
When Cleopatra died in 30 B.C., it was like a new way of life in Egypt because Cleopatra was dead.  Cleopatra was born in 69 B.C. and died in 30 B.C.  Legends say she died because she put a cobra by her and died of poison when it bit her.  Cleopatra died at the age of 39.  We know so much about Cleopatra because people go down to the Mediterranean Sea and find ancient parts of Egypt that teach us about Cleopatra.

There are still a lot of things we do not know about Cleopatra, but maybe someday you’ll make a new discovery about Cleopatra or Egypt!

0 التعليقات:

إرسال تعليق

 
Design by Free WordPress Themes | Bloggerized by Lasantha - Premium Blogger Themes | Blogger Templates