الأحد، 14 أغسطس، 2011

Hatshepsut


Queen Hatshepsut was the Queen of Egypt from 1472-1458BC.  She was the first female pharaoh.
Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I.  She was married to her half brother Thutmose II with whom she ruled Egypt until his death in 1504BC.  Hatshepsut’s husband was king for only three to four years before he died.
Hatshepsut became the person who governed the kingdom for Thutmose II’s son Thutmose III, the son of a young woman of the harem.  Queen Hatshepsut made herself the young king’s assistant who would govern the kingdom.  She then ordered herself crowned pharaoh and adopted a royal name limited only to kings.  She also wore a fake beard because it went with the name. Traditionally kings only wore the beard.
Hatshepsut built a temple in the Vally of the Kings near Thebes.   She said that she restored the damage caused by the Hyksos during their ruling of Egypt.  In the temple of Thebes (Karnak) she re-designed her father's hall.  At Beni- Hasan that is in middle Egypt she built a rock-cut temple known as Speos Artemidos.  
Her most splendid temple was Dayr Al- Bahri that she built near the town of Thebes.  It was built in about 1478 B.C. It was designed by the royal architect Senemut for Hatshepsut.  The temple had three terraces connected by ramps.  The landscaping had planted trees and flowers.  The temple was used for a burial for Hatshepsut and her father.  Hatshepsut cut another temple just for her when she was the ruler.  The temple's burial chamber was built behind her old temple.  She also planned to move her father’s mummy into her own tomb.
They say that when Hatshepsut was the ruler of Egypt she brought 22 years of peace of Egypt.  After Hatshepsut died, Thutmose III caused her name to be erased from anyplace it could be found.

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